Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Exercise from Two Different Standpoints

When it comes to health and nutrition, it should be straight forward: exercise regularly and eat a well balanced diet. However, there are different philosophies on the subject matter depending on the expertise and background of the professional. This is why I wanted to interview two different fitness and health instructors who hold expertise in two different backgrounds. The comparisons between the two are very interesting to say the least.
First, I interviewed an allopathic physical fitness trainer whose own training and views of fitness and nutrition come directly from the Centers of Disease Control nutrition and physical activity guidelines. Next, I interviewed a yoga instructor whose approach to complete health and nutrition stems from ancient Ayurveda traditions, where she commits to a vegan lifestyle, meditates, and emphasizes on physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being.
In fact, that was the biggest difference I noticed between the two: the one fitness trainer focused on purely the body as a mechanism to be sculpted, while the other worked on the entire mind-body-spirit connection. This difference was seen in every aspect of their work. The allopathic fitness trainer asks her clients their goals and then creates a customized fitness plan in order for them to achieve their goals. She keeps in mind their safety, needs, and wants during each session. She advises her clients to make healthy choices as far as nutrition, and shows them exercises to do. On the other hand, the Ayurveda fitness instructor encourages her clients to do some form of exercise for a minimum of an hour at least three days per week. She encourages her clients to do any kind of activity and then build up to an hour every day. She also believes in experimentation with different forms of exercises in order to provide variety and enjoyment to the activities. She also recommended yoga as the primary exercise, especially when a person starts their program.
Why is exercise so important? Both experts agree that exercise begets health. For the allopathic fitness trainer, physical exercise is important to burn calories, increase muscle mass and stay fit. For the holistic fitness instructor, exercise, especially yoga, is for a multitude of factors including: stress relief, pain relief, deeper breathing, flexibility, increasing strength, weight management, improved circulation, cardiovascular conditioning, presence, and inner peace. When done correctly, exercise can be very beneficial to the health and well-being of every individual. However, without proper training or supervision, it is easy to hyperextend ligaments and joints, pull muscles, and even break bones. With any activity, there are risks of injury. Both instructors are trained to teach clients proper techniques and methods during their clients' workouts. Safety is of the utmost important when working with clients.
Nutritional needs of clients are just as important. The allopathic fitness trainer encourages clients to eat a healthy and well balanced diet, complete with fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats and dairy, and watch fat and caloric intake; the balance for maintaining weight is “calories in” and “calories out” are equal. To lose weight, it is important to decrease caloric intake while increasing caloric expenditure. Low calorie foods can often take place of higher calorie foods, especially when consuming beverages. Food journals often help to track calorie intake and exercise regimen.
The holistic fitness instructor prefers to go by a different set of dietary rules including buying organic foods when possible; buy locally grown whole foods, naturally produced, mostly raw, and minimally packaged. Consume mostly raw vegetables, only whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds , and fruits. Eat for your Ayurvedic constitutional type when possible. It is also important to stay away from processed foods, such as foods in cans and boxes, packaged with preservatives, and modified chemical composites of food. Her main points, however, were specifically foods in raw form, nothing deep fried, not cooked with olive oil, no carbonated beverages (including diet), no artificial flavors or sweeteners, no coffee or other beverages with caffeine, alcohol only in moderation, never microwave food, eat only natural and holistically derived meats, consume good fats, and eat flax seeds regularly.
One major point the holistic fitness instructor differed from the allopathic one is in the fitness of whole aspects of the being, including the mind and spirit. In allopathic physical fitness, the point is to train the body by overcoming the mental roadblocks and proving to yourself that there are no real limitations except the ones which are constructed mentally. In holistic physical fitness, it is viewed that there is an inner balance between the physical body, the mind, and the spirit. It is important, in this paradigm, to go through a mental and emotional detoxification by letting go of anger, negativity, jealousy, hatred, and hostility. It is viewed that these feelings are toxic to the mind and soul. Through the practicing of mindfulness, the thoughts and emotions absorbing life can be lifted and genuine gratitude replaces it. Positivity induces a positive lifestyle where one can thrive and flourish. Plus, through prayers and positive affirmations, this positivity can be enhanced, where thoughts actually become reality. Prayer is a very powerful tool to reunite the mind-body-spirit, reciprocate love, find inner peace, show gratitude, and heal.
So how applicable is exercising to lay people? The allopathic fitness trainer finds that some people need more motivation than others to continue with the training. Some people have to be pushed to work out, some people give excuses to why they can't work out. The clients are worked at their own pace, and that is why it is important to listen to them to plan for their wants and needs during each session. The cost can be quite reasonable depending on the facility, hours, and type of physical fitness trainer hired. When personal trainers become expensive are when they are part of an exclusive gym, or club, or require a long-term contract. Although these methods can get costly, it is always important to note that one does not need to hire a professional trainer to walk, ride a bicycle, swim, or play sports with friends.
On the flip side, the holistic fitness instructor has found that her clients do not subscribe to such a strict diet or lifestyle, however she challenges them to make baby steps toward such a healthy lifestyle. She doesn't charge for her yoga classes, and sometimes meets with people afterwords to follow up on some healthy living basics. Holistic exercise, in general, can cover a broad spectrum of exercises including, but not limited to: Qigong, T'ai chi, zero balancing, water aerobics, and yoga. Easiest way of finding a qualified instructor is to do so online. Sometimes being referred to a class by a friend is a fantastic way of starting an exercise routine. Some instructors charge more than others depending on facility and their qualifications, and if their instruction is private or not. It is important to scrutinize the instructor's qualifications to make sure they have the proper training and certifications.
Keeping this in mind for my future practice, I will need to establish a knowledge base of the variety of exercises, and specifically know the specific functions of each type of exercise so that I am able to make recommendations to my clients. Knowing which type of exercises, whether it be a type of allopathic or holistic, my client would benefit from the most is very important to establishing a lifestyle change that would last a lifetime.
Thus, I close this by saying that no one type of physical trainer or fitness instructor is better than the other. The perfect fitness instructor depends on the individual, their needs and wants, goals, budget, and even their mindset. It is important that opinions of nutrition are just that, opinions, and genuine concerns about nutritional needs should be taken up with a specialist, either allopathic or holistic. Staying healthy is important no matter what, so eating healthy, staying active, being positive, and being grateful are all necessary in achieving that goal. Achieving a healthy lifestyle through a fitness instructor can be a fun experience, but it is always important to remember that the best exercises are free.

























References:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) “Physical Activity for Everyone: How Much Physical Activity do you need?” Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) “Nutrition for Everyone.” Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/index.html

Jakicic, J; Winters, C; Lang, W; Wing, R. (1999) Effects of Intermittent Exercise and Use of Home Exercise Equipment on Adherence, Weight Loss, and Fitness in Overweight Women: A Randomized Trial [Electronic version]. JAMA. 1999;282(16):1554-1560.

Kraft, Jessica, personal communication, October 21, 2011.

Lee, I; Djousse, L; Sesso, H; Wang, L; Buring, J. (2010) Physical Activity and Weight Gain Prevention [Electronic version] JAMA. 2010;303(12):1173-1179.

Tate, Beverly, personal communication, October 22, 2011.

Friday, December 23, 2011

Seabuckthorn in Modern Medicine

Introduction
The consumption of sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides, has come to the forefront as a popular supplement in recent years. This popular supplement, derived from the orange-yellow berries of the actinomycetes plant species, can be found in extract pill form, as well as in candies, beverages, jams, and even cosmetics, (Michel, et al, 2012). Beyond its popularity as a supplement, it has proven itself to be beneficial in medicine. In fact, H. rhamnoides has been used in many regions of Europe and Asia in traditional and folk medicines, including in the Tibetian, Mongolian, and Chinese cultures for many decades, (Guliyev, et al, 2004). With sea buckthorn's extensive amounts of nutrients, polyphenals, and a diverse amount of chemical constituents with healing properties, this herb has many potential uses in both complimentary and alternative medicine and preventative medicine alike.

Origins and ethnobotanical background
The deciduous plant itself comes from the Elaeagnaceae family, growing up to six meters in height with a thick main stock and elongated leaves attached to thin, gray branches. Leaves of the plant can grow either in cluster or alternating formation, with a light green color on top of the leaf and a shimmering gray underside. When in bloom, the heterosexual male or female plant pollinates via wind dispersion, and later bears a yellowish-orange berry which is powdered in a silver dust. The berry, when ripe, is sour to the taste with citrus notes (Guliyev, et al, 2004).
There are seven primary species in the genus Hippophae and eight subspecies exist of H rhamnoides L. Hippophae rhamnoides, Hippophae salicifolia, Hippophae tibetana, Hippophae rhamnoides L. are the most commonly known (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011).
Native to Europe, H. ramnoides is a hardy plant, grown in higher altitudes and frequently survives the bitter cold and long droughts (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). This plant can be found in many areas across Europe and Asia, including Italy, Spain, Britain, Russia, India, Turkey, and Tibet.
More recently, it was domesticated in Canada and British Columbia (Guliyev, et al, 2004).
From an ethnobotanist's perspective, H. rhamnoides has been used in traditional and folk medicines in many European and Asian cultures. Sea buckthorn was used in traditional Chinese medicine since the Tang Dynasty; Scandinavians used the plant as an agricultural necessity, providing food, medicine, veterinary care, and domestic tools; in other regions, ancient cultural uses of the plant included fencing, fodder, timber, herbal supplementation, and livestock feed (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). In Chinese medicine, sea buckthorn has been used as a cough suppressant, digestion aid, and pain reliever. In other traditional medicines the plants are used in the treatment of colitis, gastrointestinal upset, and diarrhea. The hemostatic actions of the plant made it useful in India and Tibet for aiding in pulmonary, cardiac, blood, and metabolic disorders. Other cultures have used the plant creatively for dermatological disorders and rheumatoid arthritis (Guliyev, et al, 2004).
Constituents
H. rhamnoides consists of many vitamins, bio-flavanoids, phytosterols, and fatty acids essential for human health. Many of the constituents contained within H. rhamnoides posses therapeutic actions such as immunumodulatory, hepato-protective, and antioxidant properties, (Guliyev, et al, 2004). The tiny berries are considered to be a great source of vitamins A, C, E, and K, as well as vitamin B complex. The fruit also contains adequate amounts of riboflavin, folic acid, zinc, coumarins, triterpenes, essential fatty acids, α-carotene, β-carotene, δ-carotene, lycopene, malic acid, oxalic acid, tocopherols and polyphenolic compounds (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). H. rhamnoides contains six cyclitol isomers, neo-inositol, myo-inositol, D-chiro-inositol, L-chiro-inositol, scyllo-inositol, and muco-inositol (Yang, et al, 2011) The phytosterols in sea buckthorn include campesterol, clerosterol, lanosterol, sitosterol, sitostanol,α-amyrin β-amyrin, Δ5- avenasterol, Δ24(28) – stigmastaenol, A stigmastadienol, Δ5,24(25) - stigmastadienol, lupeol + gramisterol, Δ57 - sitosterol, cycloartenol, cycloeucalenol, Δ7- avenasterol, 28 - methylobtusifoliol, 24 – methylenecycloartanol, erythrodiol, citrostadienol, uvaol, and oleanol aldehyde, (Li, et al, 2007). Of the oil found in sea buckthorn, 32.8% is palmitoleic acid, 17.3% is oleic acid, 9.1% is vaccenic acid, 9% is linoleic acid, and 3.4% is α-linolenic acid (Mathew, et al, 2011).
Impacts of geographical variations
Hippophae rhamnoides, as with any plant, may vary in physiological and physiochemical characteristics depending on a multitude of factors such as climate, weather, participation, and local variety of genotypes (Yang, et al, 2011), (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011) and (Ercisli, et al, 2007). Thorough research is constantly being conducted in order to investigate the composition and phytochemicals of the world's sea buckthorn. The research has focused on primarily the fruits and seeds, such as sterols, phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, tocopherols, fatty acids, and carotenoids (Yang, et al, 2011).
Hippophae rhamnoides' pharmacological and medicinal uses
Because of the H. rhamnoides ability to produce large amounts of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolic acid, and tannins, the fruit exhibits a high anti-pathogenic properties. The antioxidant properties exhibited in the fruit are also well noted in medicinal literature due to the berries' high amounts of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, (Michel, et al, 2012). The oils from the berries and seeds have been shown to stabilize membrane structures and slow down the overall oxidation process in animal studies. The antioxidative effects of the seed oil decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased sialic acid both in the liver and erythrocyte membranes in rats and guinea pigs, while protecting them from cold-induced tissue damage. The oil also had increased activities of gluthathione peroxidase, Na, K-ATPase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrase (Yang & Kallio, 2002).
Studies have also concluded that the phenolic compounds within the fruit pulp inhibit Gram- negative bacteria, prohibit tumor growth and gastric ulcers in rats, plus it has demonstrated health benefits for dermatological disorders, (Guliyev, et al, 2004).
The polyunsaturated fatty acids within the fruit offer immunomodulatory and neuroprotective activity, while the organic acids lower the risk of heart attacks, stroke prevention, anti-ulcer, anti-arthritic, and wound healing properties (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). In a double-blind, randomized, controlled study, twelve healthy, normolipidemic males between 20 and 59 years of age were asked to consume 5 grams per day of a random fatty acid blend of consisting of sea buckthorn berry oil and fractionated coconut oil for a period of 4 weeks, then separated by a 4 to 8 week washout. Out of the twelve participants, eleven completed the study. Fasting (12 hour) venous blood samples were drawn both before and after each supplementation equaling four samples per participant. The blood samples were centrifuged and then analyzed. It was concluded at the end of the study that the oil influenced platelet aggregation, especially aggregation induced by adenosine-5'-diphosphates (Johansson, et al, 2000).
Sea buckthorn extracts have shown to provide hepatoprotective activity, including the leaves and seed oil. In studies using CCI4 induced hepatic damage in animals, the constituents in the leaves, such as myricetin and quercetin were shown to significantly protect the liver from further damage from CCI4 induced hepatic damage (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011).
The tocopherols within the fruit acts as an anti-oxidant, minimizes lipid oxidation, and reduces pain (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). The majority of the tocopherols and tocotienols in H. rhamnoides are found in the fruit and seeds, 10 – 150 mg/kg and 100 – 300 mg/kg respectfully (Yang & Kallio, 2002). Other antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, also aid in cardiovascular health, decreasing the development of atherosclerosis, and increasing HDL cholesterol levels. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, sea buckthorn juice was administered to thirty non-smoking males with history of cardiovascular disease and either hematological, hepatic, renal, diabetes, or hormonal dysfunction for an 8-week period. Blood samples were obtained from each participant after a 12 hour fast; tests were conducted on the samples, including LDL oxidation analysis, sICAM-1 measurments, and plasma lipid levels. Of the thirty participants, twenty completed the eight-week study. Although there was no observable changes in LDL cholesterol following the trial, there was increases in plasma TAG and HDL-C levels in the group taking the sea buckthorn juice (Eccleston, et al, 2002).
Carotenoids are known for their ability to help with collagen synthesis and epithelialization (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). The concentration of carotenoids are found in the fruits, as well as a lesser concentration in the seeds. The amount of β-carotene is highest in pulp oil, 100 – 500 mg/100g; and are the lowest in fresh berries, 1 to 120 mg/100g (Yang & Kallio, 2002).
Phytosterols have shown promising results in lowering serum cholesterol levels and lowering the risk of heart disease (Li, et al, 2007), while improving microcirculation in the epidermis, regulating the inflammatory process, and playing a role in anti-tumor, anti-ulcer and anti-atherogenic activities (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). The flavones of the fruit have shown to inhibit platelet aggregation in multiple studies, both in vitro and in mice; demonstrated rapid heart repolarization periods in rat myocardial cells and guinea pig papillary muscle cells; as well as shown to increase lipoprotein-cholesterol and tricyglycerol concentrations within blood plasma in humans (Guliyev, et al, 2004).
In addition to the phytochemicals, the coumarins and triterpenes within H rhamnoides helps with the control of appetite, sleep patterns, memory retention, and learning. Vitamin B complex aids in nerve and cellular regeneration; vitamin C aids in collagen synthesis and cell membrane integrity; vitamin K aids in ulcer prevention (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011).
H. rhamnoides contains concentrations of D-chiro-inositol, which patients with diabetes mellitus have a reduced dietary intake of. In studies with diabetic and insulin resistant rhesus monkeys, administration of D-chiro-inositol improved their sensitivity to insulin as well as activated muscular glycogen synthase. Similar studies in humans with insulin sensitivity due to polycystic ovary syndrome, saw improvement in ovulatory function and a decrease in androgen levels, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels (Yang, et al, 2011).
Extracts of the seed oil contains essential fatty acids including omega-3 (linolenic acid), and omega-6 (linoleic acid). The oil provides a 1:1 ratio of omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids. The oil also contains a high concentration of omega-7 (palmitoleic acid) and rich in omega-9 (oleic acid), (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011). Fatty acids contribute to the health of epithelial cells, including repairing epidermal barrier system. In a placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized, double-blind experiment at the University of Turku, Finland, 22 patients with atopic dermatitis were randomly divided into three groups which were either assigned to take sea buckthorn seed oil, sea buckthorn pulp oil, or paraffin oil. Ten oil capsules (5 g) were prescribed to each patient per day and asked to maintain their normal diet and skin care regiment throughout the four-month trial. Of the 16 patients who completed the study, those who took the seed oil shown dramatic results in the production of docosapentaenoic acid, while those who took the pulp oil treatment shown an increase production of stearic acid epidermically (Yang, et al, 2000).
In addition to improving the symptoms of atopic dermatitis with the increased production of docosapentaenoic and stearic acids epidermically, the topical application of H rhamnoides oil has proven effective in healing wounds, burns, and radiation exposure. H. rhamnoides has been shown to possess antimicrobial, tissue-regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties (Yang & Kallio, 2002).
Studies evaluating the antioxidant and α-flucosidase inhibitory activities of sea buckthorn extracts showed promising results in anti-cancer research. Compounds, including 1-feruloyl-β -D-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6'-O-coumaryl) glycoside, among others, were extracted from the leaves of H. rhamnoides. These specific extracts showed high antioxidant activity and cytoprotection against oxidative stress in lymphocytes; nicotine induced oxidative stress in rat liver and heart; plus H rhamnoides flavones at a concentration levels of 100 μg/ml restricted induced apaptosis in lymphocytes by decreasing calcium levels intracellularly. Furthermore, Hippophae rhamnoides lowered the caspase-3 expression, thus protected against H2O2 induced apaptosis on vascular endothelial cells (Suryakumar & Gupta, 2011).

Hippophae rhamnoides' dietary and nutritional benefits
Since there are over 190 beneficial compounds contained within the plant Hippophae rhamnoides, it is arguably one of the most nutritional herbs ever produced. The fruit of the H. rhamnoides contains high levels of vitamin C, some species of which can contain as much as 12 times the amount of oranges. The fruit also contains high levels of vitamin E, 481 mg/100 g for some of the Chinese species of plants; and the berries are also rich in vitamins B1, B2, K. Mineral elements in the fruit and seed of H rhamnoides include iron, manganese, phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon, aluminum, boron, calcium and potassium (Bal, et al, 2011).
Consumption of myo-inositol, which converts to chiro-inositol, is an essential part of human health. Not only does it play a role in metabolism, but also plays a role in insulin production. In patients with diabetes mellitus, it was noted that their was a physical impairment of myo-inositol conversion to chiro-inositol and an increase of urinary secretion of D-chiro-inositol (Yang, et al, 2011)
H. rhamnoides fresh fruit also contains bioflavonoids as high as 1000 mg.100 g, carotenoids as high as 2139 mg/100 g depending on the species, organic acids as high as 9.1 g/100ml, and carotenolipoprotein complexes which act as a bridge between polar proteins and non-polar carotenoids (Bal, et al, 2011).
The fruit of H rhamnoides contains 18 of the 22 essential amino acids including aspartic acid (426.6 mg/100 g); serine (28.1 mg/100 g); glutamine (19.4 mg/100 g); glycine (16.7 mg/100 g); alanine (21.2 mg/100 g); cysteine (3.3 mg/100 g); valine (21.8 mg/100 g); ammonia (41.8 mg/100 g); tyrosine (13.4 mg/100 g); isoleucine (17.4 mg/100 g); methionine (2.3 mg/100 g); proline (45.2 mg/100 g); phenylalanine (20.0 mg/100 g); histadine (13.7 mg/100 g); lysine (27.2 mg/100 g); threonine (36.8 mg/100 g); and arginine (11.3 mg/100 g). Additional amino acids in the subspecies sinensis includes tryptophan (0.51 mg/100 g); leucine (1.94 mg/100 g) and glycin (0.64 mg/100 g) (Bal, et al, 2011).
The moisture content of the fruit varies from 80% - 87% depending on origin and climate, and even higher for the fruit pulp, 85% - 98% in the Indian varieties of sea buckthorn. The total soluble solids within the fruit pulp range from 8.86 – 22.74 depending on the subspecies and region, however the juice from the berries ranges from 10.7 – 13.2 TSS (Bal, et al, 2011).
The sugar content of H. rhamnoides is comprised of glucose, fructose, and xylose. The Chinese species often show higher concentrations of these sugar compounds than in other species, such as the Russian and Finnish species. The glucose and fructose in the berry usually accounts for 60% - 90% of the sugars within the fruit. Frequently, the percentage of glucose and fructose contents of the berries from a specific plant will change annually, explained by the collecting dates and weather conditions during the growing season. Sugar alcohols, such as mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol have been seen in the species Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, rhamnoides and mongolica (Bal, et al, 2011).
Conclusion
Sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides, has been an important part of human history. It has been included in almost every culture ranging from Asia to India, Russia to middle Europe, and from Scandinavia to North America. This extraordinary plant has been included in many different traditional and folk medicines, including Chinese, Tibetian, Mongolian, Nordic, and Indian cultures for the treatment of coughs, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, immunosuppressive disorders, wound healing, gynecological conditions, and cardiovascular disorders. Today, H rhamnoides is used for its antioxidant and pharmacological activities. However, with its cytoprotective, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory properties, plus its anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory benefits, sea buckthorn is a plant which must become a medicinal mainstay in complementary and alternative medicine and preventative medicine.



















References

Bal, L; Meda, V; Naik, S; Saty, S; (2011) Sea buckthorn berries: A potential source of valuable nutrients for nutraceuticals and cosmoceuticals. Food Research International, Vol 44, Issue 7, P1718-1727

Eccleston, C; Yang, B; Tahvonen, R; Kallio, H; Rimbach, G; Minihane, A; (2002) Effects of an antioxidant-rich juice (sea buckthorn) on risk factors for coronary heart disease in humans. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol 13, Issue 6, P 346-354

Ercisli, S; Orhan, E; Ozdemir, O; Sengul, M; (2007) The genotypic effects on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries grown in Turkey. Sientia Horticultuae, Vol. 115, Issue 1, P 27-33.

Guliyev, V; Gul, M; Yildirim, A; (2004) Hippophae rhamnoides L.: chromatographic methods to determine chemical composition, use in traditional medicine and pharmacological effects. Journal of Chromatography, Vol 812, Issues 1-2, P 291-307

Johansson, A; Korte, H; Yang, B; Stanley, J; Kallio, H; (2000) Sea Buckthorn berry oil inhibits platelet aggregation. Journal of Nutrional Biochemistry, Vol 11, Issue 10, P 491 - 495

Li, T; Beveridge, T; Drover, J; (2007) Phytosterol content of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil: Extraction and identification. Vol 101, Issue 4, P1633-1639

Mathew, S; Grey, C; Rumpunen, K; Adlercreutz, P; (2011) Analysis of carbonyl compounds in sea buckthorn for the evaluation of triglyceride oxidation, by enzymatic hydrolysis and derivatisation methodology. Journal of Food Chemistry, Vol 126, Issue 3, P 1399-1405

Michel, T; Destandau, E; Le Floch, G, Lucchesi, M; Elfakir; (2012) Antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigations of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf, stem, root and seed. Journal of Food Chemistry, Vol 131, Issue 3, P 754-760

Suryakumar, G ; Gupta, A; (2011) Medicinal and therapeutic potential of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 138, Issue 2, P 268-278

Yang, B; (2009) Sugars, acids, ethyl β-d-glucopyranose and a methyl inositol in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries. Journal of Food Chemistry, Vol 112, Issue 1, P 89-97

Yang, B; Zheng, J; Kallio, H; (2011) Influence of origin, harvesting time and weather conditions on content of inositols and methylinositols in sea buckthron (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries. Journal of Food Chemistry, Vol 125, Issue 2, P 388-396

Yang, B; Kalimo, K; Tahvonen, R; Mattila, L; Katajisto, J; Kallio, H; (2000) Effect of dietary supplementation with sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seed and pulp oils on the fatty acid composition of skin glycerophospholipids of patients with atopic dermatitis. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol 11, Issue 6, P 338-340

Yang, B; Kallio, H; (2002) Composition and physiological effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae) lipids. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol 13, Issue 5, May 2002, P 160-167